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Analysis of the business model of electric vehicle time-sharing lease and its future prospects.
Author : CAS-HIAU   Time : 2015-07-13

        This paper makes an overview of domestic and international (Car-Sharing), and the model of electric vehicles in the time of the lease.

        Time-sharing lease in fact is the commercial operation of the Car-Sharing, history first appeared Car-Sharing in 1948 in Zurich, Switzerland, cooperatives, the organization in Switzerland established the "self driving cooperatives". The idea is when a member of cooperative runs out of the car and the car keys to the users. Then the whole development is as follows:

         - 1960 to 1970, with the use of automotive electronic system in vehicles, car sharing continued slow development.

        - 1970 ~ 1980, the car sharing project appeared in the system of services, in France ProcoTip system, but because of the limitations of various technologies only lasted 2 years. Witkar in Amsterdam, the launch is also used for small electric vehicles, the entire project using electronic technology to vehicle booking and specification, plans to cover most of the city's station, the project has been extended to the late 1980s, eventually due to the restrictions was abandoned.

      from 1980 to 1990, Car-Sharing real roots of the era, developed countries, such as Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada and the United States slow but sustainable development, mainly by the non profit organization operation.

     - 1990 ~ 2010, Car-Sharing has a number of large Business Companies, such as Autolib, Car Club City, Greenwheels, JustShareIt, Stadtmobil, Zoom, Zipcar and.

        2010 - so far, Car-Sharing continued to develop, automotive companies have to test the operation. Use traditional cars and electric vehicles to run projects. Car2go project such as Daimler, BMW on demand project, Renault twizy way and Toyota CMOS, respectively, the use of pure electric vehicles electric smart, active e, twizy and CMOS for empirical research. As shown in Table 1, the electric car sharing operations also began to occupy a part of the.

Table 1 electric car sharing project

                  Project name     Operating location     Operating models     Operation quantity

Honda                       Japanese           MC-β                      TBD

Nissan   Choi-MobiYokohama   Japanese           New Mobility Concept         100

Toyota        CMOS              Japanese France      CMOS、Iroad               200

BMW    DriveNow            US    Germany     Acitve E  Electric car          70

Daimler   Car2go             Germany            Smart  Electric Drive         100 

Reynolds   Twizy Way          France              Twizy                      100

Domestic electric vehicles the sub time lease item

        In the domestic situation, the Internet companies and car companies are interested in this field, the main factors are the following:

1. The city license plate in the implementation of total quantity control: this measure is due to the urban population density, road congestion and environmental problems, making control departments to take short-term measures to become long-term shown.

2 share of the economy: the ownership and use of the cost of the car has been reduced, but also makes the government departments tend to be as a model of development.

Currently in operation of the project as shown in Table 2, according to the current trend, there will be more and more car enterprises will enter this field.

Table 2 domestic rental projects

Project   Operation Time  Company          Place   Model   Website  Number Charges

 GREENGO  2014.12  Beijing's new energy leasing company  Beijing E150 50   1500   30¥/H

Easy car 2013  Yi Lu Da Technology Development Co., Ltd. Beijing  E150 34  TBD    34.9¥/H

Easy car 2013.9 Easy green car rental Co. Ltd (Beijing)    Beijing  E150  8  300     30¥/H

 System architecture for time sharing

 The system mainly includes two main parts, IT system, vehicle system and charging system:

 1. vehicle system: mainly by the key system and vehicle networking system of the two parts, the vehicle will be the key to complete the control and vehicle positioning and monitoring of the status of the vehicle.

 2. charging system: the main information on the charging pile monitoring, easy to inform the user to charge

 3 IT system: mainly by several parts of the composition

 A. order system is divided into customer facing interface, there are four modes of mobile app, web, voice and self-service machine operation; and is part of the background order processing, especially need to pay attention to is the holiday traffic management.

B. system management: vehicle allocation and scheduling, management and control of the vehicle, especially retrieval of car mileage and alarm of pure electric vehicles is particularly important

 C. billing management: the state of the vehicle running and stopping to record, to provide consumers with a reasonable and humane billing management is very important.

D. warranty processing: the need for professional driving record system, dealing with the accident insurance due to different customers.

 Business models and challenges of time sharing

1) the business model of the sub time

 The problem of the division of the lease is the use of the vehicle within 100 kilometers of the city and the extra large cities, from the perspective of the journey:

1. 0 ~ 10 km within is to travel a short distance, the main object is transfer vehicles and short distance travel, in this range facing competition in the taxi, of course, the current taxi charging mode makes the range, taxi drivers do not want to during peak hours.

 2.10 ~ 40 km, the customer's demand is official travel, the general farthest to work distance is also on this range. This is the most generous taxi profit range, but also the most challenging part of the lease.

 3. 40KM ~ 100 km, mainly in the city for a period of time.

More than 4.100 kilometers, then rent cheaper, timeshare rental benefit is not obvious.

2) points to the challenge of leasing

The cost pressure of the lease is mainly for:

 1. electric cars more expensive, the purchase cost is higher, equal to a single rental cost is not low

 2. rental points and charging parking fees: due to the use of vehicles and charging can not be separated, so that the higher cost of vehicles

3. the number and coverage of the rental shop: a large number of laying lease points will cause a lot of cost, while the coverage and density of the leasing point will affect the customer's use.

Time sharing model

At present, there are two main types of sub lease mode, as shown in Figure 3:

   1. lease site mode: in the lease site to extract and return the vehicle, the user in A, B, C... X points can take the car and also the car, through intelligent parking to achieve charging, but also car and take the car. In this mode, due to the car's intelligent devices and intelligent charging pile mode, can be achieved no operation, the current operation in France's Autolib project.

 A. advantages:


           I. operators need to be less human, by the user to complete the charge

   II. implementation of the difficulty: the configuration of the basic communication module can be achieved through the configuration of the charging terminal and the car 

 B. disadvantages:

    I. user experience in general, the user needs to use the vehicle before the point of the lease to the destination, the destination has to go to the rental point

    II. laying lease cost is relatively high, in order to achieve the convenience of the user, it is necessary to improve the density of the network, so that the results are higher cost of parking spaces and service points

2. Free flow patterns: in some regions anywhere in the extraction and return of the vehicle. This model does not set any fixed location, user in a certain region of any place pick up the car and the car, this model users only need to one-way rental car, drive into a public parking spaces can be currently applied in car2go's model.

 A. advantages:

      I. user experience is good, because it is a one-way car rental, can be used directly after the vehicle parked on the parking lot

       II. investment cost is low, the public parking spaces can be separated with the charging piles to a certain extent, to do a ratio

 B. disadvantages: higher human costs

        I. the vehicle is stopped in public charging, such as no use, the need for specialized service team will be placed on the vehicle access point.

       II. When the battery is lower than a certain value, automatic guide customers to open to the nearest charging pile; if the user is not in accordance with the navigation to the may lead to the vehicle power exhausted and need to maintenance personnel of the trailer occurs.

 Sub time leasing of independent charging terminal

In the whole system, in addition to the vehicle system and it system, providing unattended charging, the car one site is also very important a ring, as shown in Figure 4 below, the French autolib self-service terminals. This integrated terminal has the following functions:

 1 read the RFID card, so that customers can plug in the charging end of charging

 2 detection of vehicle position and record information: confirm the vehicle license and vehicle condition information, stop the process of recording information.

 3 the transfer of user information and charging information: the transfer of RFID card information, the transfer of information to the process of charging, backup the entire operation process image information.

 4 display information and print invoices: to assist users in the operation of the display interface and to provide invoices.

 5 voice assistance: provide assistance to the user and IT call center by voice calls.


The development of time sharing

       In essence, both Google and Uber are trying to change the way the vehicle is used, and the consistency between the two of the starting point and the target can reflect the future of the lease. The development of the lease can be divided into three different stages:

       1.Short term development: a certain degree of vehicle automatic driving and wireless charging, in the absence of low speed, to solve the vehicle's storage and delivery of the problem. Can be leased to the car and the point of the full separation of charging points, can realize the independent management of charging. Wireless charging and automatic parking & Library: through to the original vehicle from conductive charging replaced with wireless charging and auxiliary to automatic parking, can reduce the charging ratio and according to the car's power to adjust. Customers only need to stop in the vicinity of the wireless charging coil, you can realize the vehicle automatically parking to charge and open the charging process.

     2. Medium term development: the vehicle to a greater degree of automatic driving function, according to customer requirements, the vehicle configuration to the customer's position, customers can achieve a certain range of the car. Low speed unmanned operation: through the comprehensive use of images and radar, to achieve the low speed automatic situation, can realize the vehicle any parking. Vehicles to the server side of the demand, to configure the vehicle into the nearest lease point or enter the wireless charging mode. High speed unmanned scheduling: to further improve the processing speed, you can achieve the vehicle's demand response. According to the actual needs of users, to match the position of the vehicle, delivered to users required positions.

    3. long-term development: the vehicle to reach the stage of unmanned, will make such a model has a very broad space. Customers can choose their own driving or automatic mode. To adapt to the road: This is the most ideal mode, on the basis of demand response, the user can choose the automatic mode and automatic mode, according to the destination path planning and according to the deployment of the system to match the most suitable operating routes.

                                                        Note: Figure 2 from the hand of Liu Gongzhi, and of benefit

 Urban traffic based on smart micro electric vehicle

    Green pure electric mini car, can well satisfy the miniaturization, electric non pollution, through the promotion of intelligent, the vehicle as far as possible run rather than parked in a parking space, will be an important part of urban traffic in the future. From the trend point of view, we can imagine the future of the city of traffic, will have the following characteristics:

          From buying a car to buy a car: because of the vehicle's shared mechanism, in some applications, people are buying the service instead of buying a vehicle to achieve a trip.

         - small: from meeting the needs of the city, the 2 ~ 1 travel demand is relatively easy to meet, through the vehicle can be small to meet the travel service to meet. Smaller vehicles will be better provided to carry the efficiency.

       - a wireless connection of the vehicle: the vehicle passes through the communication of the server and the other vehicles, and the vehicle has evolved into an important data node. Cars can collect and share data, and through the server's judgment and command, and the car itself unit of writing, to provide services for passengers.

      - the car is capable of sensing the surrounding environment: by creating a record of the personal use of the car and the environment of the vehicle, to provide services to the driver.

       the car can automatically drive: the vehicle's automatic driving, is from the auxiliary drive to start to develop, slowly realize the different degree of improvement. This, just as Urber is achieved by the driver to carry a variety of load, the future of the car itself will be able to achieve the load.

    - the car is capable of connecting to the smart grid: the electrical energy storage unit of the vehicle, which will be connected to the grid for free. Through the sharing of information and the deployment of the system, the electric energy and the electric load of the vehicle can be more and more balanced to achieve the best effect.


      From the point of view of the development of technology and services, the future of the demand for personal transportation, may be cut into their own vehicles and travel services in two parts. From the evolution of the vehicle hardware to travel services, the potential of smart micro electric vehicles in the city is huge.







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